- © HC
Abbreviations upon abbreviations – Here you can find a list of terms that we encounter again and again in the SAP process – simply and succinctly explained. Our glossary is a living and constantly growing document and we very much welcome your comments or suggestions. Please do not hesitate to contact us.
For feedback and suggestions: Daniela Wolff 
Please note: The English text is a direct translation of the German original and is, therefore, not in alphabetical order. Disclaimer: Please be aware that the English version of the German SAP glossary is a translation of the German original and not an original English-language SAP document. While every effort has been made to ascertain the correct SAP English-language equivalent of the German terms, TU Berlin Translation Services cannot with certainty guaranty that this is always the case.
- Active Availability Check (AVK)
- Legacy Data
- Former System
- Asset Accounting
- Working Groups for Campus Management
- Basis Administrator
- Document/Activity Document
- Accounting Area (FI - Finance)
- Booking Periods
- Booking Key
- Campus Management (CM)
- Change Management (CMM)
- Change Request (CR)
- Cross Applications (CA)
- Data Migration
- Debitor (FI - Finance)
- Debitor Accounting
- TU Berlin/Staff Council Agreement on Additional Work and Overtime During the Introduction of Campus Management
- Disclosure Management
- External Funding Management
- Revenue/Expenditure Type
- End User Trainings
- Enterprise Portal
- ERP System
- Technical Concept
- Financing View
- Commitment Item (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- Funds Center (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- Fiori / FioriApp
- Funds (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- Grant (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- Free-Form Order
- Functional Area
- Joint Appointments
- Operating Division
- Fiscal Year Variant
- Finance Management
- Budget Program (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- HCM - Human Capital Management
- Info Type
- Internal Orders (CO - Controlling)
- Isolated Applications
- Invoice Management
- Actual Processes
- Job Family
- Catalogue Orders
- Key User
- Controlling View
- Conception Phase
- Cost Elements (CO - Controlling)
- Cost Center (CO - Controlling)
- Creditor (FI - Finance)
- Creditor Accounting
- Life Cycle
- Activity Type (CO - Controlling)
- Steering Board
- Steering Committee (LK ERM)
- Steering Committee (LK SLM)
- Employee Groups and Subgroups MA-Gr./Kr.
- Operational Steering Committee (OST)
- Organizational Units
- Person View
- Budgeted Positions
- Profit Center (CO - Controlling)
- Project Definition (PS - Project System)
- Projects (PS - Project System)
- Project Directors (PL)
- Project Managers (PM)
- Process Experts
- Process Manager
- WBS Element (PS - Project System)
- WBS Elements (PSM - Public Sector Management)
- Development and Testing Phase
- RM - Records Management
- Roles and Authorizations
- SAP - Systems, Applications, Products in Data Processing
- SAP CO - Controlling
- SAP Enable Now (EN)
- SAP ER - E-Recruiting
- SAP FI - Financials
- SAP FI-AA - Financials – Asset Accounting
- SAP FI-TV - Travel Management
- SAP Fiori
- SAP GUI
- SAP IdM - Identity Management
- SAP Jam
- SAP MM - Materials Management
- SAP Module Supervisor
- SAP Module Manager
- SAP OM - Organizational management
- SAP PA - Personnel Administration
- SAP PA-PM - Budget Management
- SAP PD - Personnel Development
- SAP PS - Project System
- SAP PSM - Public Sector Management
- SAP PSM-FM - Public Sector Management – Funds Management
- SAP PSM-GM - Public Sector Management – Grants Management
- SAP PT - Time Management
- SAP PY - Payroll
- SAP RE-FX - Real Estate Flexible
- SAP Trainings
- SAP SRM - Supplier Relationship Management
- SAP Standard
- SAP Student Lifecycle Management (SAP SLcM)
- SAP System Administrator
- Target Processes
- Statistical Key Data (CO - Controlling)
- Job Categories
- Allocating Positions to Pay Scale Levels
- Tax Code
- Day-End Closing
- Subproject TP
- Subproject Manager TP
- Transaction / Transaction Code
- Center of Campusmanagement (ZECM)
- tuPORT - Portal
- Dual Control
- Academic Executive Staff
- Work Flow
- Awarding Authority (PSM - Public Sector Management)
AManDa is short for “Anzeige und Management von Projektdaten” or Announcement and Management of Project Data.” After SAP implementation, it will serve as the basis for an external funding information system at TU Berlin. AManDa will replace the “elektronische Projektanzeige (ePA)” or electronic project announcement, which was designed by and for TU Berlin. The new SAP technology, HANA, will be used in AManDa. HANA, or high performance analytic appliance, offers higher computational power for the analysis of content data.
Active Availability Check (AVK)
Will be activated for fund management (PSM-GM — Public Sector Management - Grants Management) at TU Berlin. AVK can be applied in multiple steps, so that the following reviews are possible:
• No AVK
• Review of E-/A- type.
• Review of entire grant
The data we have used up until now that will be transferred to the new system.
The various programs used thus far, which were not linked with each other and were not accessible to everyone. This system resulted in double data entries, higher error rates, and difficulties transferring data. The programs used included QISPOS, COB, and Loga.
Asset Accounting (FI-AA) allows business administrative processes used for capital assets to be recorded in their own sub-ledger. In the SAP ERP-system, FI-AA allows the user to manage and monitor assets.
Working Groups for Campus Management
During the preparations for Campus Management, the working groups drafted target processes, which are key and instructional for the new IT. Employees from all areas and status groups were represented in the working groups.
A total of 17 working groups drafted processes, including lectureships, the calculation of capacities, and procurement.
BAdIs or Business Add-Ins offer the option to add pre-defined expansion options in the SAP components, which can then be implemented.
The basis administrator is a new role in the SAP operation.
• Preparation of “SAP landscapes”
• Supervision of SAP Net Weaver
• Administration, monitoring or configuration, and, if necessary, implementation of transports
• Error analysis and troubleshooting
• System maintenance
• Planning and realization of SAP updates
• Administration of SAP databases
Documents a completed activity as well as a planned activity (plan).
It serves as a type of system receipt, documenting who completed what and when. In the student file, for example, it can document the history of entries and changes made for a student.
A browser is a program used to provide a graphic presentation of content on the world wide web (www). If a browser shows HTML pages, it is considered a web browser (e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Safari).
Accounting Area (FI - Finance)
The Accounting Area is an organizational unit, for which complete, self-contained bookkeeping can be depicted. Audits and profit and loss accounts for external purposes, i.e. as required by law, can be created at the accounting area level.
To comply with regulations, an accounting system must ensure that completed accounting periods cannot be retroactively posted and, similarly, that future, as yet not relevant, periods cannot be posted. This explains why the booking periods defined by the allocated fiscal year variant are opened and closed based on the accounting area.
The booking key is entered before a document item is entered and controls how the item is captured and processed. The booking key defines:
• Which account side is booked (debit or credit)
• Which type of account is booked with the booking key
• Which fields are included on the input screen and whether the fields must be completed (field status)
Cross Applications: An SAP term referring to applications that do not solely address a single topic. At TU Berlin, this includes the following subprojects:
• Identity management
• Data management and digitization
• Reporting and controlling
Campus Management (CM)
The Campus Management program deploys effective and efficient administrative processes to support the University’s core tasks – academics, teaching, research. The objective is to combine all administrative processes with appropriate IT support to improve service, use available capacities more effectively, and enable more consistent success monitoring.
Change Management (CMM)
Change Management is a subproject of Campus Management. Change Management organizes and implements all tasks, measures, and activities that are intended to achieve comprehensive, cross-departmental, and far-reaching change – for the implementation of new structures, systems, and processes – in an organization. This includes all written and oral communication measures as well as event formats.
Change Request (CR)
A request for a change. A change request is a request for a change to be implemented in a company or process. Change requests document, plan, and implement the necessary change. Change requests affect budget planning.
Cross Applications (CA)
Cross Applications are functions/components that are used in more than one application or field. CA is an SAP term referring to applications that span specific areas of work. At TU Berlin, this includes the following subprojects and topics:
• Subproject SAP-Basis
• Subproject Identity Management
• Subproject Reporting and Controlling
• Subproject Portal/User Interface
• Roles and authorizations
• Test management
• Records Management
• Integration management
• Data migration
• System architecture
• Work flow
Adjusting something individually (specific to a customer’s requirements). The customizing of standard software refers to all measures that are implemented to introduce an application system to adapt a standardized software to the user’s (TU Berlin) specific demands.
Data migration takes place when data is moved from one system/format to another, which is necessary when the switch is made to a new system.
Debitor (FI - Finance)
Debitor (from the Latin debere meaning “to owe”) is a term in accounting used for parties owing for supplies and services provided.
The accounting data for all customers is managed in Debitor Accounting (FI-AR). The corresponding inventory accounts are updated based on the accounting transaction (claim, advance payment).
TU Berlin/Staff Council Agreement on Additional Work and Overtime During the Introduction of Campus Management
An agreement was confirmed between the Staff Council and University administration regulating additional work and overtime that may occur during the introductory period. It applies to employees who are intensively involved in the productive launch of SAP. TU Berlin is making every effort for employees not to be over-burdened with additional work and overtime.
The TU Berlin/Staff Council Agreement can be found via Quick Access 166041.
SAP Business Objects Disclosure Management is part of SAP Enterprise Performance Management solutions and is a central component of integrated reporting – from the figures-based data source to the ready-to-print annual report
The demands for precise, time-sensitive, and representative annual reports are high. For many companies, gathering and combining data from different sources represents a major challenge. The combination of financial data and free-form text requires manual intervention. Due to the de-centralized creation of documents, different versions of the same documents must be consolidated. This often leads to a high susceptibility to error, long processing times, and an insufficient overview of the process.
SAP Business Objects Disclosure Management helps to master these challenges. This solution allows the reporting process to be flexibly designed to include any teams, hierarchical levels, and regional units.
Reports can be created that are revisable, have a high-quality layout, and can be exported in various output formats. Data from different data sources, such as SAP ERP, SP BW, and many other SAP and non-SAP solutions are used to create the reports. The annual report process will be largely automated and accelerated. The annual report is divided into different chapters, which can be individually controlled based on authorizations and processes. Predefined tables from various sources can be provided to the relevant authors, who can then flexibly integrate them into their chapters. Data is updated centrally. All changes are highlighted so that they can be easily recognized. Authors check their chapter in and out and log the status of their work. This allows them to have an overview of the formation process and its history at any time. Predefined table and document templates ensure high-quality presentation and formatting. With just the click of a button, a preview of the entire document can be created and saved as an independent document.
External Funding Management
External Funding Management is a combination of two SAP ERP modules and its components:
• Project System (SM)
• Grant Management (PSM-GM)
Classifies revenue and expenditures in accordance with the guidelines and conditions of the external funding provider. They are implemented according to the external funding provider’s reporting requirements.
End User Trainings
In the end user trainings, TU staff are prepared for their everyday work with the SAP system. They become familiar with the interface and are trained specifically in the applications relevant to their work. End user trainings for ERM will be conducted between October and December 2017. These end user trainings should not be confused with the trainings and workshops held during the conception phase, in which only experts from the departments and individual representatives participate to define target processes.
The SAP Enterprise Portal is SAP’s company portal software. The portal is based on the SAP Application Server (Java).
Its functions include, among others:
• Single sign-on (SSO)
• Role-based presentation
Application integration, such as Manager Self Services (MSS) and Employee Self Services (ESS), with which it is possible, for example, to view or edit one’s own data in the personnel system in the browser interface (WebGUI).
ERM is a software that can be used to administer all of a company’s or organization’s assets and resources.
An Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP System) provides comprehensive functional support for all business processes conducted in a company.
It contains modules, among others, for procurement, research and development, human resources, and controlling, that are connected via a joint database.
SAP Employee Self-Services is a web-based or mobile application enabling employees to personally enter, announce, change, or start approval processes.
The technical concepts are the result of the conception phase in the ERM project. They contain the functional requirements for the SAP software. The content is the result of workshops held between TU Berlin and SAP during the conception phase.
The basis for filling a budgeted position is available funding. The funding can either be available as the budget or a budget element. The budget (e.g. external funding or flexible faculty budget) can be used as needed to establish a position. Budget elements (budgeted positions, SAP term for ensuring consistency when referring to budgeted positions) are subject to restrictions with regard to roles and service types.
If the specifications for evaluating or filling a budget element (e.g. teaching or researching assistant (qualification) E13) are not followed (e.g. filled by a technical employee E13), we refer to this as “anomalous” use.
The financing does not always reflect where the budgeted position is anchored in the organizational structure. In contrast to funding from XXX 31, 32, 70, etc., funding from XXX 01, 13, or 60 does not immediately suggest an organizational allocation.
The financing and controlling views often correspond to the organizational allocation. Deviations in individual cases are permissible and contain important information for creating a complex comprehensive picture.
Commitment Item (PSM - Public Sector Management)
Commitment items represent the factual aspects (expenditure and revenue structures). They facilitate the organization of budget and liquidity transactions according to revenue and expenditure. At TU Berlin “commitment items” are used to represent the public accounting titles used by the University. This means that unlike with SAP’s university reference model, commitment items that are numerically identical to the inventory accounts cannot be created. Instead, TU Berlin’s five-character title is entered as the lowest element in the commitment item hierarchy.
In the future, the central accounting element in budgeting is to be funds (compare to Section 3.1.3). A higher-level commitment item is to be set up for the overall budget and external funding in the SAP ERP system, as all account assignment elements in combination (that is, the complete account assignment combination) always have to be entered in all processes (including budgeting). This higher-level commitment item is superior to the expenditure commitment items (= expenditure title) in the overall budget and is to be budgeted (in combination with the other account assignment elements). In doing so, a budget can be made available on the expenditure side across titles (that is, on the superior commitment item). There is, then, a two-tier commitment item hierarchy as depicted in Image 1. Revenue commitment items are not to be assigned to any superior commitment items. They represent the TOP commitment item in the hierarchy 000.
Funds Center (PSM - Public Sector Management)
Funds centers depict the hierarchy of organizational units (areas of responsibility, departments, projects). In the SAP ERP System for TU Berlin, the funds center hierarchy corresponds to the cost center hierarchy. The existing cost center structure and numeric are retained. The cost center is composed as follows:
Cost center: 12345678, with:
• 12 = Level 1 - Type of organizational unit/cost center (Faculties, Central Units, ZUV, etc.)
• 34 = Level 2 - Institutes, Sections, etc.
• 56 = Level 3 - Chairs, Professorships, accounting at the Institute/Section level
• 7 = Level 4 - Accounting at the Chair level
• 8 = Level 5 - Free disposal
For TU Berlin, the following fundamental rules apply for funds centers:
Funds centers are created the same way as cost centers (and as cost center nodes or groups). The funds center hierarchy is created as hierarchy 000. The hierarchy is named “TU Berlin.” The highest element in the hierarchy is the commitment item TUB (“TUB Gesamt”), which is used for budgeting purposes.
Commitment items are numeric and adhere to the same numerical naming system of the cost centers (or cost center groups, depending on how they are configured in Controlling (CO)).
Fiori / FioriApp
These are the new SAP user interfaces deployed in the browser which adapt themselves to the screen size of a terminal device such as a tablet, desktop computer, or smartphone. U15 apps that are based on U15 technology but are only programmed according to certain rules can be called Fiori.
Research information system
Funds (PSM - Public Sector Management)
Funds are master data of funds management (PSM-FM). Funds depict financial capital in funds management (PSM-FM), which are provided by a funding body for a specific purpose and can be managed separately. This allows the structure to clearly depict where the funds originated. Funds are to be entered in finance management (PSM-FM) as master data.
The fund in the SAP ERP System of TU Berlin is also activated for Controlling (CO). This activation allows for fund-based controlling (CO) at TU Berlin. This, in turn, requires that every time an actual and target value is booked in controlling (CO) (primary and secondary bookings), a fund must always be assigned.
Please refer to the functional concept for finance management (PSM-FM) to learn more about using funds in TU Berlin’s SAP ERP system.
Grant (PSM - Public Sector Management)
Grants are master data of grant management (PSM-GM). In grant management (PSM-GM), grants depict grant agreements for external funding projects, which were concluded with a funder for a certain purpose and are administered separately on the basis of defined conditions provided by the funder. Grants are to be entered in grant management (PSM-GM) as master data.
The grant in the SAP ERP System of TU Berlin is also activated for Controlling (CO). This activation allows for the grant agreement-based controlling (CO) of external funding projects at TU Berlin. This, in turn, requires that every time an actual and target value is booked in controlling (CO) (primary and secondary bookings), a grant must always be assigned. A default grant is assigned to all bookings in controlling (CO) that are not relevant to a grant agreement.
Please refer to the technical concept for external funding administration to learn more about using funds in TU Berlin’s SAP ERP system.
A free-form order is permitted when the goods or service to be purchased are not available in a bound catalog. Free-form orders are orders based on free descriptions (written by the party placing the order) of a goods or service. Depending on the type of goods, it may be necessary to compare offers and select a supplier.
The job family and functional area re-group positions in less detail. Job family and functional area are used in the staff development module in order to be able to offer target-group oriented trainings. Further grouping makes it possible to create analyses by person groups for reporting purposes or to create mailing lists.
Computers connecting the data and computer networks
In computer science, it is used to refer to a component (hardware or software) that establishes a connection between two systems. The term gateway implies that the forwarded data are being processed.
Joint appointments according to the Jülich and Berlin models are depicted as permanent, budgeted positions. Joint appointments according to the Karlsruhe Model are depicted as additional permanent, budgeted positions, as the professorships have been established by the managing board of an external scientific institution. This means that jointly appointed professors simultaneously occupy a Strukturprofessur position (in other words a professorship established in the TU Berlin budget) and a budgeted position with the managing board of the external scientific institution designated by the academic chair. This process is necessary to avoid having to “split” Strukturprofessur positions which would in turn make it much harder for them to operate effectively.
An operating division is an account assignment element of external accounting, generally referring to a specific area of work or responsibility. Value flows entered in Financial Accounting (FI) can be assigned to an operating division.
Fiscal Year Variant
A fiscal year must be defined with booking periods so that accounting transactions can be allocated to certain time frames. The fiscal year is defined as a variant, which is allocated to an accounting area.
When a planned system assumes live operation. When a transfer is made from the former system to SAP, with SAP to be used henceforth.
High Performance Analytic Appliance. HANA is an SAP development platform used to process large amounts of operational and transactional data in real time without having to wait for the planned report. TU Berlin chose HANA technology for its campus management.
Finance management (PSM-FM) contains all the accounting functions related to the allocation and monitoring of the budget. The concept of budget also implies an overview of revenue and expenditure.
Budget Program (PSM - Public Sector Management)
The budget program can be used to categorize incoming and outgoing payments. The budget program represents the purpose of a payment. In the SAP ERP System at TU Berlin, it is used to depict the budgetary view of projects in accordance with the project system (PS).
The following determinations are made for all other bookings from the upstream modules:
• Budgets programs are created using a numbering that is identical to the WBS element.
• If you assign a cost center to an account or do not derive the corresponding budgeting program, the system uses budgeting program 1000 (overall budget) as a standard.
Initially, the field selection for the budgeting program master will be adopted as it is defined in the SAP university reference model. Should it become clear during the test phase that the settings in each field (can, must, announcement, hide) require editing, this can be done retrospectively at a later stage.
HCM - Human Capital Management
Planning, management, and control of operational human capital. HCM is an expansion of operational personnel management and aims to make a positive contribution to the added value.
University information system; system used for electronic exam management
University information system; system used for electronic student management
The subproject replaces the TUBIS identity management system, which was developed at TU Berlin. As a result of the transition to SAP, it is now the current tool and is directed by tubIT. Christopher Ritter is head of this subproject.
Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) directs the lifecycle of business information - until their destruction - based on pre-set rules.
The implementer implements the new SAP software, creating a functional program. At TU Berlin, SAP is used for the ERM project and itelligence for the SLM project.
Summary of data fields regarding content (e.g. personal data: name, title, date of birth)
Internal Orders (CO - Controlling)
Internal orders generally serve to aid the planning, accumulation and settlement of costs for the measures and tasks of an organization (for example workshop orders). The SAP ERP system makes it possible to control internal orders for their entire duration – from the opening of the order via the planning and posting of all actual costs through to the final settlement and archiving.
A typical example for the use of internal orders is to plan and monitor costs when employees from multiple cost centers participate in a fair with simultaneous requests. Printing orders, maintenance requests and measures, and accrual orders are further examples.
A differentiation between internal orders is made using the definition of the order type. Every internal order must be assigned an order type in the SAP ERP System. This order type communicates certain parameters to the order. An order type encompasses a variety of control information important for managing orders. This includes a series of suggested values that can be carried over when a new order with the same order type is created.
The test phase will determine whether internal orders will be used at TU Berlin.
A technical system that is only effective within its own limits and is not compatible with other surrounding systems.
The product SAP Invoice Management (IM) by OpenText is being installed and set up so that incoming invoices can be electronically processed.
A process analysis compares the actual state of a process with the target state. The actual state is as the process currently is, whereas the target state is how the process should work in the future.
itelligence is a full-range IT service provider in the SAP environment for medium-sized companies and organizations. It supports SLM with the implementation of SAP.
The job family and functional area re-group positions with a smaller degree of detail. Job family and functional area are used in the staff development module in order to be able to offer target-group oriented trainings. Further grouping makes it possible to create analyses by groups of persons for reporting or to create mailing lists.
A “catalogue” is a list of defined articles with set prices. It can exist in various forms: from a link to an external shop to an Excel list. The catalogue simplifies procurement; counteroffers and the retrieval of self-disclosures are not required for catalogue items.
In the future, every TU Berlin employee can submit a purchase order in the new SAP system. The desired item is searched for in an online catalogue. The content of this catalogue is the result of framework agreements reached through open calls by TU Berlin and the catalogue articles of the Berlin State Administration Office. If the required item is not available, you can submit a free-form order.
Someone who is essential to an SAP project and beyond. They are the contact person for technical questions from the central IT administration and colleagues in their own department. They form the link between the IT and specialist department and also function as multipliers disseminating knowledge on how to use the SAP module applications in the specialist departments. If desired, key users can assume trainer responsibilities.
A key user concept was developed for this role. The concept details the responsibility, authorizations, and tasks and is being integrated in the project handbook.
• Initiation and implementation of technical process changes
• Contribution to designing and optimizing (new) processes
• Creation of test scenarios
• Implementation of tests
• Documentation of error and test results
• Preparation of end user trainings and, if possible, implementation of these trainings
• Communication with users, module managers, and testers
In Cost Center Accounting and Cost Object Controlling, the costs incurred are assigned to cost centers and/or cost objects (such as external funding projects) The assignment of a person to a cost center determines which cost center their personnel costs are to be posted to. In many cases, the assignment to a cost center corresponds to the organizational assignment of a person. This is not, however, always the case. If, for example, a staff member is assigned to a cost center beginning with 60, then no information is provided concerning their organizational assignment, particularly regarding the right to vote for institute or faculty committees.
The financing and controlling views often correspond to the organizational allocation. Deviations in individual cases are permissible and contain important information for creating a complex comprehensive picture.
The aim of the conception phase is to define all prerequisites and requirements for the subsequent realization phase. Two primary tasks of the phase: detailed draft of the data models, detailed draft of the application system models. Architectural planning is a crucial component of this phase. During architectural planning, decisions are made about data flow and the structure of a data model. It lays the foundation for all later developments.
Cost Elements (CO - Controlling)
Cost Elements are used to differentiate between how costs were incurred (the same applies to receipts). They are intended to form the basis for a precise, demarcated and clear allocation of costs to cost centers and cost units, to enable planing and controlling to be made on the basis of costs, and to provide information for the purposes of decision making.
The most important cost element categories are personnel costs, material costs, calculative primary costs (particularly amortizations) and secondary costs (above all transfers, levies).
Cost Center (CO - Controlling)
The structure of the cost center customarily reflects TU Berlin’s structure. The structure of the organizational units in organizational management (PA-OM) can be constructed identical to the standard hierarchy of the cost centers in Controlling (CO).
The structure of the cost center standard hierarchy and of the cost centers can initially be oriented on the organizational structures. In addition, cost centers can be set up according to functional aspects with regard to further requirements of cost and performance accounting (KLR), e.g. cost centers for energy, buildings, vehicle fleets, etc. As pre-cost centers, these are relieved by allocation procedures to final cost centers or cost units.
Creditor (FI - Finance)
A creditor (Latin credere “to believe, to trust”) is someone who is owed deliveries and services. They are called a creditor because as the vendor or service provider, they assume the risks of a lender.
Accounts Payable (FI-AP) maintains the accounts and manages the data for all vendors. Furthermore, it is an integral component of Materials Management (MM): Deliveries and invoices are recorded by vendor.
The course of, for example, an external funding project, from planning the project to the final settlement is supported by the definition of a so-called life cycle. A life cycle can map the various phases of an external funding project.
Activity Type (CO - Controlling)
Activity types are those activities within an account group performed internally by a cost center. They are recorded in amounts that are measured in activity units. The activity amount is evaluated with a tariff (transfer price).
A tariff can be calculated based on the budgeted costs as well as on the actual costs. Costs can be planned, calculated, and controlled at the level of a cost center’s activity type or the level of the cost center.
At the University, existing sovereign service relationships between the workshop (service provider) and the other units are shown as direct service allocations. Although these internal settlements are not relevant to payment, an adjustment of the assessed value is required in budget management (PSM-FM).
For reasons of systematization, a six-digit numeric with a textual description field has been created. The technical field for entering activity types in the SAP ERP System consists of six digits.
The decision has been taken for TU Berlin not to use activity allocation for the time being. However, we are currently working to make this technically possible.
The steering board is the highest decision-making authority in the program organization of Campus Management. It ensures that the ERM and SLM projects are focused on attaining the project objectives and delivering the agreed upon project results throughout the projects’ entire duration. It pays particular attention to quality, time, and budget. The steering board guides the ERM and SLM projects through all project phases and is hierarchically placed above the Operative Steering Group (OSK) and is in close consultation with the steering groups for both projects and project management.
Steering Committee (LK ERM)
The steering committee is the highest project-specific instance in the ERM project. All technical and organizational project topics that do not effect another project are directed by the steering committee. It controls the respective implementation of the project (planning, creation, performance review).
Steering Committee (LK SLM)
The steering committee is the highest project-specific instance in the SLM project. All technical and organizational project topics that do not effect another project are directed by the steering committee. It controls the respective implementation of the project (planning, creation, performance review).
Employee Groups and Subgroups MA-Gr./Kr.
The German abbreviation MA-Gr./Kr. is short for Mitarbeitergruppe and Mitarbeiterkreis, i.e. employee groups and subgroups. This is information used to create a clear structure. The abbreviation is to be entered as a reference value in organizational management and as an actual value in personnel administration for the actual person. The value is made up of a letter (rough structure) and a number (fine structure).
The client is a discrete unit with separate master records and a complete set of tables. This is the highest hierarchical level in the SAP ERP system. Specifications made or data entered at this level apply to all other organizational structures relating to the client. The centralized administration of such information avoids duplication and ensures database consistency. It enables the integrated access of jointly used data for the various SAP ERP applications.
SAP NetWeaver technology platform is an essential element of SAP and forms the basis of most SAP applications. It provides an abstraction layer between application and the operating system and database.
Organizational Management This subproject is intended to depict the organizational structure at TU Berlin, striking a balance between the autonomy of the academic chairs and faculties on the one hand, and the requirements for standardization of IT on the other. The subproject is headed by Tobias Langnickel.
Operational Steering Committee (OST)
The operational steering committee is responsible for the functional integration of ERM and SLM projects. Whilst the steering committee is responsible for the making of decisions based upon the relevant advantages and disadvantages and risks, the operational steering committee is responsible for researching the information upon which these decisions are made as well as agreeing on technical aspects.
Organizational units are elements of the organizational structure, e.g. faculties, institutes, chairs, departments, sections, etc. All organizational units are hierarchically distinct within the TU Berlin “organization”.
Whilst target qualifications and skills exist for budgeted positions for use when writing job descriptions for postings etc., employees’ qualifications and grades often, in reality, do not exactly match these target qualifications and skills. In such cases we can speak of an “anomalous” filling of a position.
In addition to permanent “anomalous” situations, such as when a post intended for a civil servant is filled by a non-civil servant, this mainly refers to temporary situations, such as cover in the event of sickness. If a budgeted position is indicated as permanent, this means that it can be filled on a permanent basis, but does not rule out the possibility of filling the position on a temporary basis either, such as to provide cover. In general, however, a temporary budgeted position cannot be filled by staff employed on a permanent basis.
The fact that the holder of a budgeted position as a teaching and/or research assistant would like to do a doctorate does not automatically mean that it is possible for them to do so.
Budgeted positions refer to functions and tasks and form the basis for establishing the pay scale for a particular range of duties, the duties to be performed, the required qualifications and skills, as well as roles, entitlements and authorizations. Such information relating to a budgeted position has a number of functions, such as forming the basis for a job posting. Budgeted positions are always assigned to an organizational unit. Issues such as deciding who reports to whom (important for deciding who approves applications for leave for example) or the right to vote (e.g. for institute or faculty councils) are also determined on the basis of the allocation of a budgeted position to an organizational unit. All staff administrated by personnel at TU Berlin, irrespective of the nature of their employment (such as, as a civil servant or staff member covered by collective agreements), holds at least one budgeted position (it is possible, however, to hold several positions).
Profit Center (CO - Controlling)
Profit centers are organizational units in accounting that structure the organization in a management-oriented way, that is, for the purposes of internal control. The assigning of cost centers and cost units (technically: internal orders) to profit centers (areas of authority) enables a suitable evaluation level for cost analysis (parenthesis function).
The classification of master data corresponds to the usual structures of accounting. There are special features due to their function.
In cost accounting, different account assignment objects are actually posted which entail the allocation to a profit center. This makes two essential special features clear: when statistical postings are involved, the profit center is "self-sufficient" and integration into a hierarchy is only required within profit center accounting.
The anomaly of statistical additional posting gives rise to the third special feature: There must be a collection object for misdirected "co-postings". This is designated as a dummy profit center (number: 9999).
Project Definition (PS - Project System)
The project definition is the binding framework for all organizational elements created within a project. Non-binding start and end dates can also be defined for a project. The values for project definition are taken from the template of the project profile when entering a work breakdown structure. If a work breakdown structure is entered using a template and at the same time a project profile is entered which differs from the template, it is possible to take either the suggested values of the template or those of the project profile.
Projects (PS - Project System)
Projects generally serve to aid the planning, accumulation and settlement of costs for the projects, measures and tasks of an organization. The SAP ERP system makes it possible to control projects for their entire duration – from the opening of the project via the planning and posting of all actual costs through to final settlement and archiving.
The description of all features of a project, as well as conducting searches using these data fields cannot be depicted via the project system module (PS). As such, it needs to be examined whether the requirements of TU Berlin regarding the compilation and administration of content data for electronic project announcements and internal research funding can be combined in an extended technical concept using HANA technology. There is the option of including the requirements in the Project System (PS) technical concept defined here.
In the SAP ERP system, the project represents the general definition and thus the binding framework for a work breakdown structure. The work breakdown structure determines the actual account assignment elements of the project - the work breakdown structure elements (WBS elements), which can be created for a project and which structure the project into subtasks or measures.
Project Directors (PL)
The ERM project director is the director of the Executive Office and the director of the SLM project manager is the vice president for education, digitalization, and sustainability. The project directors work closely with the the project managers and General Project Management to ensure that target outcomes meet objectives in terms of quality and are delivered within the agreed time frames and within budget.
Project Managers (PM)
The project managers’ main function is to ensure that target outcomes are achieved in terms of quality, within the agreed time frames and within budget.
Project management ERM:
• Michaela Müller-Klang,
• Robert Nissen
• Lars Oeverdieck
Project management SLM:
• Robert Nissen
Process experts are (generally) staff from the faculties, central institutions and central institutes at TU Berlin. Along with the key users, they play a central role in the introduction of SAP.
Process experts, together with key users, are appointed primarily for those processes affecting the University’s decentralized units. This new function is intended to improve and safeguard the exchange of information within the SAP project between the Central University Administration and the decentralized units. Process experts for ERM are particularly important when new processes are to be established.
• Providing expert and process-specific (background) knowledge
• Acting as multipliers
• Ensuring improvements to the system
• Coordinating the needs of colleagues from the respective units
• Passing recommendations to key users
• Making recommendations for comprehensive standards
• Preparing software tests (involvement in the drafting of test scenarios) with key users
• Testing of functionalities in agreement with key users
• Involvement in the drafting of content for training documents and e-learning programs
The process manager is a new role in the SAP operation.
• Functional responsibility for the overall process (not only in terms of SAP)
• Responsibility for the drafting of all licenses for all processes within their area of responsibility, including those processes which involve more than one organizational
WBS Element (PS - Project System)
While the project only represents the defined organizational and structural frameworks, work breakdown structure elements represent the actual accounting, planning and invoicing elements of a project in the project system.
WBS Elements (PSM - Public Sector Management)
Work breakdown structure elements are master data of the project system for the mapping of externally funded projects. These can be planned, budgeted and posted individually. They are available for analyses in the standard Project System (PS) reports. TU Berlin uses WBS elements to represent external funding projects, projects in the overall budget, and other cost units. Details can be found in the technical concept Controlling (CO) and Project System (PS) sections.
Development and Testing Phase
From theory to practice: During the development and testing phase, the results of the functional plans (of SAP) are implemented. New processes are implemented and enhancements to ERP solutions developed. Functionalities and applications are tested by the key users and process experts in the test system of the new software. This makes it possible to identify problems and find solutions. The productive start will commence upon completion of the development phase.
RM - Records Management
Records Management will be the future repository for project files in electronic form. TU Berlin’s records management applications in SAP will enable the University to centrally manage all its business documents and thus see who created which documents and when. Most importantly, records management enables a speedy retrieval of those documents central to the conducting of business.
Roles and Authorizations
A user role (or simply a role) combines a range of individual authorizations for a software in an operating system. User roles are used to avoid the need to individually grant each user individual rights for the above-mentioned areas. Rather than assign the same individual rights to many users, a user role is defined to which the rights are then assigned. Users are then assigned to the appropriate role and thus receive executive rights.
As subscriber to an RSS feed, you are directly informed by email of all new information from the entire website. This removes the need to view all the individual webpages. Subscribers receive automatic information as soon as there is a change or addition to the webpages covered by the subscription.
SAP - Systems, Applications, Products in Data Processing
Europe’s leading provider of business software with a focuson the development of software for conducting all business processes of an organization, including accounting, controlling, marketing, purchasing, production, storage and personnel.
SAP CO - Controlling
Inhalt: Kosten- und Leistungsrechnung/ Controlling
SAP Enable Now (EN)
SAP Enable Now (EN) provides training for users and helps prepare them for the implementation of a new software or an upgrade. The navigator is a pro-active assistant in the productive system. The Desktop Assistant (DA) makes a context-based content design possible. EN enables users to learn and progress according to their own needs. It also serves to consolidate and develop users’ expertise.
SAP ER - E-Recruiting
Function: recruitment of staff
SAP FI - Financials
Function: financial accounting including the integration of subsidiary books of account (bookkeeping for clients, suppliers, assets and materials)
SAP FI-AA - Financials – Asset Accounting
Function: asset accounting
SAP FI-TV - Travel Management
Function: travel management
SAP Fiori is a product group of SAP applications with a user interface not linked to specific devices. Fiori is intended to enable a simplification and personalization of the user experience (UX) for SAP applications.
SAP Graphical User Interface. This term refers specifically to the graphical user interface (and not the design) of an SAP system, as well as the program made available and operated by this interface.
SAP IdM - Identity Management
Function: User administration
SAP Jam is a communication platform within an organization which clients, partners and staff can use to exchange information about applications and processes, receive the latest information and contact experts. SAP Jam facilitates internal and external cooperation for teams, projects or stakeholders, as well as the exchange of knowledge, experiences, views and ideas. The “feed updates” enable a quick and easy exchange of news and information.
SAP MM - Materials Management
Function: materials management: purchasing, inventory etc.
SAP Module Supervisor
The module supervisor is a new role within the SAP system. The role corresponds to that currently occupied by the functional administrator.
• Customizing, developing, solving bugs
• Overseeing and implementing technical processes
• Providing second and third level support
• Contact for project teams and key users
• Development and supervision of the SAP module
SAP Module Manager
The module manager is a new role within the SAP system.
• Functional and content expertise for all module groups within an organizational unit
• Responsible for the configuring of processes within a module
SAP OM - Organizational management
Function: organizational management The OM components enable the presentation of the functional organizational structure (e.g. departmental hierarchy) in terms of tasks.
SAP PA - Personnel Administration
Function: personnel administration
SAP PA-PM - Budget Management
Function: budget management
SAP PD - Personnel Development
Function: development of personnel
SAP PS - Project System
Function: depiction and further processing of projects
SAP PSM - Public Sector Management
The consolidation of funds management and grants management
SAP PSM-FM - Public Sector Management – Funds Management
Function: Funds Management
SAP PSM-GM - Public Sector Management – Grants Management
Function: external funding management/grants management
SAP PT - Time Management
Function: staff time management
SAP PY - Payroll
SAP RE-FX - Real Estate Flexible
Function: flexible real estate management
The SAP project distinguishes between trainings provided during the conception phase and trainings intended for end users to be given shortly before the go-live.
During the planning phase, staff from the various departments with a good overview of the various processes within their areas, as well as representatives of different groups from the faculties participate in trainings and workshops. These enable the participants to gain an understanding of the individual features of SAP and to work out TU Berlin’s software requirements.
This input process has two phases for the ERM project: First of all, there is a basic training, and then, following on from this, a planning workshop. The basic training programs serve to familiarize participants with the terms and features of an SAP module and to introduce them to the processes involved. The planning workshops develop and define the target processes.
Training courses for (end) users take place shortly before the go-live of the fully adapted SAP modules and introduce the previously developed, adjusted and tested SAP features. It is planned to integrate SAP trainings into TU Berlin’s continuing education program.
SAP SRM - Supplier Relationship Management
Function: supplier relationship/order processing
SAP develops standard software for various branches. SAP has been able to draw upon many years’ experience to develop the “Hochschulreferenzmodell” for higher education and research. Default settings have been incorporated which are typical for higher education and research processes and which nearly always follow the same procedure. TU Berlin’s requirements for its new software were agreed in planning workshops and then worked into drafts developed by SAP. Once approved by TU Berlin, these drafts are developed and incorporated into the new system to reflect TU Berlin’s requirements. Special requirements for the SAP system which are unique to TU Berlin are being developed during the course of the project, with new programs being written.
Advantages of the standard software: faster operational readiness than is the case with individually developed solutions and a guaranteed software development via regular updates from SAP.
SAP Student Lifecycle Management (SAP SLcM)
SAP SLM is an integrated solution for the depiction of all student administration processes, as well as other academic services and support processes, e.g. personnel administration or accounting.
SAP System Administrator
The SAP system administrator is a new role within the SAP system.
• Responsibility for hardware and operating systems
• Maintenance of systems
• Administration of the IT infrastructure
• Solving technical bugs
• Software distribution
SAP workshops establish and define the various requirements of TU staff regarding the new SAP system.
A segment is an account assignment element of external accounting generally referring to a specific area of work or responsibility. Value flows entered in Financial Accounting (FI) can be assigned to the segment.
Student Lifecycle Management
A process analysis compares the actual state of a process with the target state. The actual state refers to the process in its current state, whereas the target state describes how the process should work in the future.
Statistical Key Data (CO - Controlling)
Statistical key data serve in the SAP ERP system as the basis for settlements or as additional reporting information for a cost center or profit center manager.
Statistical key data are purely quantitative numbers – in other words non-evaluatory figures – for example, the number of staff, the number of square meters etc. booked to cost centers and/or cost units and used for the following purposes:
• For key data information for cost center and cost unit reporting,
• As the base parameter for evaluations and distributions (e.g. distribution of a building cost center to individual final cost centers by square meter).
Job categories group together budgeted positions with identical activities. Each budgeted position is assigned to a job category. A job category can comprise several budgeted positions. Information entered for a job category can be “passed on” to the assigned budgeted positions. This helps to reduce the data maintenance workload.
Example: The budgeted positions for the processing of traveling expenses A - E, F - K, L - P etc. are grouped together within the job category Traveling Expense Processing. The tasks to be performed are identical, only the area of responsibility (in this case the alphabetical range of family names of staff) differs.
Allocating Positions to Pay Scale Levels
The allocation of a job category to a pay scale refers to the standardized pay, currently derived from the MA-Gr./Kr. This is determined according to the evaluation of the tasks involved (e.g. according to BAK) and not according to the individual grouping. Several pay scale categories are grouped together. E 13 - A 16, for example, means E 13, E 14, E 15, A 13, A 14, A 15 or A 16.
The tax code in the SAP ERP system defines a tax transaction from which the tax amount can be determined automatically. The tax code also determines the automatic posting of tax amounts to tax accounts.
At day-end closing, the positions in bank accounting are compared with the positions in external bank accounts.
The Campus Management program consists of two projects - ERM and SLM. Each of these projects has a number of subprojects with specific areas of responsibility, such as external funding, trainings, data migration and students. There are a total of 16 subprojects.
Subproject Manager TP
The subproject manager is responsible for ensuring that the results relating to their subproject are achieved to the desired quality, within cost and by the agreed deadlines. Each subproject manager is responsible for the detailed planning of their subproject and has the authority to delegate the processing of work packages and tasks within the subproject to experts and colleagues working on the project. The subproject manager is the main point of contact for their subproject.
Transaction / Transaction Code
Each transaction in SAP (for example, posting documents, manual amortization, creating employees) consists of a four-character transaction code. Each code consists of digits and letters and is assigned to a single transaction.
Center of Campusmanagement (ZECM)
TU Berlin IT Service ZECM objective is the reliable provision of a cooperative service model: efficient service with core services and support in the development and introduction of an IT infrastructure adapted to the requirements of research.
tuPORT - Portal
The main contact for all future SAP as well as non-SAP applications. The portal technology is based on the SAP Launchpad and is a product of the Enterprise Portal.
User interface of Generation 5. An intuitively designed interface reflecting the latest developments in user friendliness. In contrast to the SAP GUI (which is intended for formal usability without design), UI5 refers to design. A Fiori application is also a UI5 interface.
Dual control refers to the fact that important tasks should not, or may not, be conducted by a single person. The aim is to reduce the risk of errors and misuse or malpractice. Important tasks in accounts payable accounting, for example, include the maintenance of master data (in particular bank data) and the simultaneous posting and payment of invoices. Neither of these tasks maybe performed by a single member of staff.
This SAP technology is for creating web-supported applications which can be used with an SAP ERP and other systems. It operates in the browser. Currently active examples are access to student grades and the recording of grades for faculties (both examples of SLM examination management).
Academic Executive Staff
Definition in organizational management: Academic managerial staff refers to all budgeted positions which are filled by academics and which focus on academic activities. These include deans, vice deans, managing directors, heads of chairs and academic managerial staff working in the central institutes and institutions. Members of the Executive Board are designated as “executive administration” on the basis of the executive profile of their salaries. Academic directors of central institutions and institutes also generally head an academic chair. Executive staff requiring the title of professor to qualify for their positions are similarly regarded as academic executive staff.
Description of a business process where work is divided into separate stages and where the process is one that is usually often repeated. The work flow determines the tasks and the division of work into units for processing as well as how these relate to one another within the process (e.g. work flow and data flow).
Awarding Authority (PSM - Public Sector Management)
External funding providers are entered as “external funding providers” in funding management (PSM-GM). The awarding authority’s individual administrative-technical requirements are recorded in its master data system. For some awarding authorities, these requirements differ according to the type of funding approved. Since master data integration with Financial Accounting (FI) exists, external funders are created in account groups that also exist in Accounts Receivable Accounting.
Some master record entries for awarding authorities are automatically copied when you create a grant with reference to this awarding authority. The values thus proposed serve as a starting point only and can be overwritten.
Grants Management (PSM-GM) uses the business partner functionality in the SAP ERP system. A business partner with the role of external funder is recorded in the SAP ERP system.